The order is usually as follows:
The hosts of current, last, and future summits.
- The rest of front row:
Country leaders according to seniority. Recently elected leaders are farther from the center.
- Second row:
Leaders according to seniority.
- Third row:
Representatives of international organizations, usually in alphabetical order (English or French).
Merkel, for example, has attended all G20 summit meetings as Germany's chancellor since 2009 until 2019. She always appeared in the second row, and moved to the center as her status moved up. (It is noted that Frank-Walter Steinmeier is the president of Germany, and not Merkel.)
In Hangzhou (2016) and Hamburg (2017) summits, Merkel was in the first row as host of current or next summit.
In 2018, Merkel missed the group photo in Buenos Aires as she arrived late and her plane had to turn back due to some technicalities.
In 2019, Merkel was spotted at the outer edge of the first row, although it may seem against protocols, it is believed to be as a compensation for last year's appearance.
Who will be at the center in Riyadh?
Riyadh G20 Summit
Center front row: Saudi Arabia, Italy, Japan.
-2019 summit in Osaka, Japan.
Center front row: Japan, Brazil, Saudi Arabia.
The rest of the representatives appear through the rows.
- 2017 summit in Germany
Center front row: China, Germany, Argentina.
- 2016 summit in China
Center front row: Germany, China, Turkey